sábado, 23 de julio de 2016


Graphic on the proportion between airstrikes in Syria launched by United States (blue color) and "Arab allies and Canada" (in red) from December 2014 to August 2015, published in this report of Airwars.org entitled: "First year of Coalition airstrikes helped stall Islamic State – but at a cost"

A plea signed by a great number of professors of international law and researchers entitled « A plea against the abusive invocation of self-defence as a response to terrorism » is circulating on the web since a few weeks.

Among the signatories, which are more than 220 professors and almost 50 assistants/researchers (see the list available here as to July 29, regularly updated by the Centre de Droit International de l´Université Libre de Bruxelles, ULB) and repoduced at the end, we find distinguished members of international law community as well a younger researchers and assistants. The objective of this collective initiative is to challenge the invocation of the legal argument of self-defense by several States in the context of the war against ISIL or ISIS.

As well known, the United Nations Charter is extremely clear on the unique exception to the prohibition of the use of force since 1945: self-defense (and military operations authorized by Security Council under Chapter VII of the Charter). However, since 9/11, various interpretations made by United States and its allies have tried to legally support unilateral military operations in the territory of a State without previous consent of its authorities. In a recent note published on the website of the European Journal of International Law (EJIL), we read that: “Particularly since 9/11, several States have supported a broad reading of the right to use force in self-defence, as allowing them to intervene militarily against terrorists whenever and wherever they may be. A consequence of that conception is that any State could be targeted irrespective of whether that State has ‘sent’ the irregular (in this case terrorist) group to carry out a military action or has been ‘substantially involved’ in such an action” (Note 1).

The use of force in self-defense must be exercised in conformity with the conditions laid down in the UN Charter and international law. On this very particular point, it must be recalled that France presented at the Security Council a quite surprising draft resolution after Paris attacks of November 13, 2015 (see full text of the « blue version » circulated among delegations) avoiding any reference to the Charter in the operative paragraphs: it is possibly a great “première” of French diplomacy at the United Nations (Note 2).

The text of this plea (available here ) in French, English, Portuguese, Spanish and Arabic) considers, among others arguments, that: « Thus, numerous military interventions have been conducted in the name of self-defence, including against Al Qaeda, ISIS or affiliated groups. While some have downplayed these precedents on account of their exceptional nature, there is a serious risk of self-defence becoming an alibi, used systematically to justify the unilateral launching of military operations around the world. Without opposing the use of force against terrorist groups as a matter of principle — particularly in the current context of the fight against ISIS — we, international law professors and scholars, consider this invocation of self-defence to be problematic. In fact, international law provides for a range of measures to fight terrorism. Priority should be given to these measures before invoking self-defence ».

For the signatories of this plea,

« …. we consider that terrorism raises above all the challenge of prosecution and trial of individuals who commit acts of terrorism. A variety of legal tools are available in this respect. They relate first and foremost to police and judicial cooperation (chiefly through agencies such as INTERPOL or EUROPOL), aiming both at punishing those responsible for the crimes committed and preventing future occurrence of such crimes. Although there is certainly room for improvement, this cooperation has often proved effective in dismantling networks, thwarting attacks, and arresting the perpetrators of such attacks. By embracing from the outset the « war against terrorism » and « self-defence » paradigms and declaring a state of emergency, there is a serious risk of trivializing, neglecting, or ignoring ordinary peacetime legal processes”.

It must be noted that international law scholars and researchers around the world can sign this document until next July 31. The text recalls a certain number of very clear rules that diplomats in New York know better than anyone, despite the ambiguous interpretations made by some of their colleagues, in particular since the beginning of airstrikes in Syria, without the consent of its authorities (Note 3).

This collective document refers also that:

« … the maintenance of international peace and security rests first and foremost with the Security Council. The Council has qualified international terrorism as a threat to the peace on numerous occasions. Therefore, aside from cases of emergency leaving no time to seize the UN, it must remain the Security Council’s primary responsibility to decide, coordinate and supervise acts of collective security. Confining the task of the Council to adopting ambiguous resolutions of an essentially diplomatic nature, as was the case with the passing of resolution 2249 (2015) relating to the fight against ISIS, is an unfortunate practice. Instead, the role of the Council must be enhanced in keeping with the letter and spirit of the Charter, thereby ensuring a multilateral approach to security /…/ However, the mere fact that, despite its efforts, a State is unable to put an end to terrorist activities on its territory is insufficient to justify bombing that State’s territory without its consent. Such an argument finds no support either in existing legal instruments or in the case law of the International Court of Justice. Accepting this argument entails a risk of grave abuse in that military action may henceforth be conducted against the will of a great number of States under the sole pretext that, in the intervening State’s view, they were not sufficiently effective in fighting terrorism».

It must be noted that, last February 2016, Canada new authorities decided to cease airstrikes in Syria and Iraq. We read on this official note produced by Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) that: “ In accordance with Government of Canada direction, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) ceased airstrike operations in Iraq and Syria on 15 February 2016. From their first sortie on 30 October 2014 to 15 February 2016, the CF-188 Hornets conducted 1378 sorties resulting in 251 airstrikes (246 in Iraq and 5 in Syria), expended 606 munitions and achieved the following effects: 267 ISIL fighting positions, 102 ISIL equipment and vehicles, and, 30 ISIL Improvised Explosive Device (IED) factories and ISIL storage facilities”.

In 2015, a Canadian scholar concluded an extremely interesting article on Canadian airstrikes in Syria and Iraq in the following terms: “However, there is a further legal hurdle for Canada to overcome. Unless Canada can attribute ISIS´ attacks in Iraq to Syria, then the question becomes whether Canada may lawfully target ISIS, as a nonstate actor in Syria’s sovereign territory, using the ‘unwilling or unable’ doctrine to prevent ISIS’ extraterritoriality attacks against Iraq. This justification moves significantly away from the Nicaragua, Congo and Israeli Wall cases’ requirement for attribution. There appears to be a lack of consensus on whether opinion juris and state practice have accepted the “unwilling or unable” doctrine as customary international law. There is no escaping the conclusion that Canada’s air strikes on Syria are on shaky, or at least shifting, legal ground ” (Note 4).

The signatories of this collective plea, which number increase from day to day, including scholars from different continents and age, conclude reaffirming that:

« The international legal order may not be reduced to an interventionist logic similar to that prevailing before the adoption of the United Nations Charter. The purpose of the Charter was to substitute a multilateral system grounded in cooperation and the enhanced role of law and institutions for unilateral military action. It would be tragic if, acting on emotion in the face of terrorism (understandable as this emotion may be), that purpose were lost ».

Chart elaborated by Airwars.org on the distribution of airstrikes launched on Iraq territory among members of the "Coalition" published in this article of BBC

Note 1: See CORTEN O., « A Plea Against the Abusive Invocation of Self-Defence as a Response to Terrorism”, European Journal of International Law (EJIL Talk), July 14, 2016, available here.

Note 2: See ou modest note published in France, BOEGLIN N., «Attentats à Paris : remarques à propos de la résolution 2249 », Actualités du Droit, December 6, 2015, available here . See also, after parliamentary debate in United Kingdom authorizing airstrikes in Syria, BOEGLIN N. «Arguments based on UN resolution 2249 in Prime Minister´s report on airstrikes in Syria: some clarifications needed », Human Rights Investigation, December 4, 2015, available here.

Note 3: On the notion of « unwilling or unable » State, justifying, for some diplomats, military operations on its territory without its previous consent, see: CORTEN O., “The ‘Unwilling or Unable’ Test: Has it Been, and Could it be, Accepted?”, Leiden Journal of International Law, 2016. Full text of this article available here.

Note 4: See LESPERANCE R.J. , “Canada’s Military Operations against ISIS in Iraq and Syria and the Law of Armed Conflict”, Canadian International Lawyer, Vol. 10 (2015), pp. 51-63, p. 61. Full text of the article available here.


1. Ricardo ABELLO GALVIS, Professeur, Universidad del Rosario (Bogotá, Colombie) 2. Georges ABI SAAB, professeur honoraire, Institut de Hautes études internationales et du développement 3. Carmen Gina ACHIMESCU, Assistant Professor, University of Bucharest 4. Boutheina AJROUD SABRI, Maître de conférences, Université de Carthage 5. Shin-ichi AGO, Professor, University of Ritsumeikan 6. Denis ALLAND, Professeur, Université de Paris 2 Panthéon-Assas 7. Niki ALOUPI, Professeure, Université de Strasbourg 8. Philip ALSTON, Professor, New York University 9. Julien ANCELIN, Maître de conférence, Université de Bordeaux 10. Paz ANDRES SAENZ DE SANTAMARIA, Catedrática, Universidad de Oviedo 11. Nicolas ANGELET, Professeur, Université libre de Bruxelles 12. Tony ANGHIE, Professor, University of Utah 13. Donald K. ANTON, Professor, Griffith University (Australia) 14. Constantine ANTONOPOULOS, Associate Professor, Democritus University of Thrace 15. Charalambis APOSTOLIDIS, Professeur, Université de Bourgogne FrancheComté 16. Walter AREVALO-RAMIREZ, Professor, Universidad del Rosario 17. Jean D’ASPREMONT, Professor, University of Manchester & University of Amsterdam 18. Alessandra ASTERITI, Professor, Leuphana University (Germany) 19. Mariano AZNAR, Catedrática, Universidad Jaume I 20. Rémi BACHAND, Professeur, Université du Québec, Montréal 21. Louis BALMOND, Professeur, Université de Toulon 22. Karine BANNELIER, Maître de Conférences HDR, Université Grenoble Alpes 23. Rafâa BEN ACHOUR, Juge, Cour africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples 24. Ilias BANTEKAS, Professor, Brunel University London 25. Paolo BARGIACCHI, Professor, Kore University of Enna (Italy) 26. Marie-Laure BASILIEN-GAINCHE, Professeure, Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3 27. Dr Annyssa BELLAL, Lecturer, Sciences Po Paris 28. Haykal BEN MAHFOUDH, Professeur, Université de Carthage 29. Nadia BERNAZ, Senior Lecturer, Middlesex University London 30. Abdelwahab BIAD, Maitre de conférences HDR, Université de Rouen 31. Christina BINDER, Professor, Universität Wien 32. Marion BLONDEL, Maître de conférence, Université de Bordeaux 33. Pierre BODEAU-LIVINEC, Professeur, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense 34. Nicolas BOEGLIN, Professeur, Universidad de Costa Rica 35. Nerina BOSCHIERO, Dean of the Law Faculty, Università degli Studi di Milano 36. Michael BOTHE, Professor, Goethe University Frankfurt 37. Mouloud BOUMGHAR, Professeur, Université de Picardie 38. Susan BREAU, Professor, Professor, University of Reading 39. Antonis BREDINAS, Professeur émérite, University of Athens 40. Eva BREMS, Professeure, Ghent University 41. Wladimir BRITO, Professeur, Université du Minho (Portugal) 42. Bruce BROOMHALL, Professeur, Université du Québec à Montréal 43. Emiliano J. BUIS, Profesor adjunto, Universidad de Buenos Aires 44. Michael BYERS, Professor, University of British Columbia 45. Enzo CANNIZZARO, Professore ordinario, Università di Roma "La Sapienza" 46. Jorge CARDONA, Catedrática, Universidad de Valencia 47. Tony CARTY, Professor, Tsinghua University Law School Beijing 48. Julien CAZALA, Maître de conférences HDR, Université d’Orléans 49. Ludovic CHAN-TUNG, Maître de conférences, Université Grenoble Alpes 50. Vincent CHAPAUX, Professeur, Université libre de Bruxelles 51. Hilary CHARLESWORTH, Professor, Australian National University 52. Monique CHEMILLIER-GENDREAU, Professeure émérite, Université Paris Diderot 53. Théodore CHRISTAKIS, Professeur, Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut Universitaire de France 54. Carolina de Abreu Batista CLARO, Professor, International Relations Institute, University of Brasília 55. Luigi CONDORELLI, Professeur, Université de Florence ; Professeur honoraire, Université de Genève 56. Aristoteles CONSTANTINIDES, Assistant Professor, University of Cyprus 57. Olivier CORTEN, Professeur, Université libre de Bruxelles 58. Eric CORTHAY, Assistant Professor, Bahrain Polytechnic 59. Charles-Emmanuel COTE, Professeur, Université Laval 60. Claire CREPET DAIGREMONT, Maître de conférences, Université de Paris 2 Panthéon-Assas 61. Florian COUVEINHES MATSUMOTO, Maître de conférences, Ecole normale supérieure (Ulm) 62. Carmelo DANISI, Temporary Professor of International Law, University of Bologna (Forlì campus) 63. Eric DAVID, Professeur émérite, Université libre de Bruxelles 64. Sérgio Roberto DE ABREU, Professor, Universidade Luterana do Brasil 65. Géraud DE LA PRADELLE, Professeur émérite, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense 66. Rui Aurelio DE LACERDA BADAR, Coordenador da Escola de Direito Internacional, Academia Brasileira de Direito Internacional 67. Arnaud DE NANTEUIL, Professeur, Université Paris Est-Créteil 68. Thaís DE OLIVEIRA, Professeure, Institut Federal de São Paulo 69. Olivier DE SCHUTTER, Professeur, Université catholique de Louvain 70. Kaouthar DEBBECHE, Maître de conférences, Université de Carthage 71. Barbara DELCOURT, Professeure, Université libre de Bruxelles 72. Cristian DELPIANO, Associate Professor, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Chile 73. Christophe DEPREZ, Maître de conférences, Université de Liège 74. Delphine DESCHAUX DUTARD, Maître de conférences, Université Grenoble Alpes 75. Giovanni DISTEFANO, Professeur, Université de Neuchâtel 76. Frederik DHONDT, Professor, VUB/UGent-FWO 77. Daniel DORMOY, Professeur émérite, Université PARIS-Sud/Paris-Saclay 78. Emmanuella DOUSSIS, Associate Professor, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens 79. Maria Luísa DUARTE, Professeure, Université de Lisbonne 80. Laurence DUBIN, Professeure, Université de Paris VIII 81. François DUBUISSON, Professeur, Université libre de Bruxelles 82. Geneviève DUFOUR, Professeure, Université de Sherbrooke 83. Ariel DULITZKY, Clinical Professor and Director of the Human Rights Clinic, University of Texas at Austin 84. Cynthia EID, Academic Consultant, Université de Montréal 85. Marina EUDES, Maître de conférence, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense 86. Diego P. FERNANDEZ ARROYO, Professeur, Ecole de droit de Sciences Po Paris 87. Julian FERNANDEZ, Professeur, Université Paris 2 Panthéon Assas 88. Thibaut FLEURY GRAFF, Professeur, Université Rennes 1 89. Moustafa FOUAD, Professor, Tanta University, Egypt 90. Isabelle FOUCHARD, Chercheuse CNRS, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne 91. Erik FRANCKX, Professor, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 92. Duncan FRENCH, University of Lincoln, UK 93. Martin GALLIE, Professeur, Université du Québec à Montréal 94. Laura Victoria GARCIA-MATAMOROS, Professeure, Universidad del Rosario (Bogotá – Colombie) 95. Thierry GARCIA, Professeur, Université Grenoble Alpes 96. Albane GESLIN, Professeure, Science Po Lyon 97. Ghazi GHERAIRI, Enseignant, Université de Carthage 98. Habib GHERARI, Professeur, Université d’Aix-Marseille 99. Christine GRAY, Professor, University of Cambridge 100. James A. GREEN, Professor, University of Reading 101. Délber Andrade GRIBEL LAGE, Professor, PUC Minas (Brazil) 102. Julia GRIGNON, Professeure adjointe, Université Laval 103. Hajer GUELDICH, Professeure agrégée, Université de Carthage 104. Nabil HAJJAMI, Maître de conférences, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense 105. Antenor HALLO DE WOLF, Assistant Professor, University of Groningen (The Netherlands) 106. Salwa HAMROUNI, Professeure, Université de Carthage 107. Sarah HEATHCOTE, Associate Professor, Australian National University 108. Mamadou HEBIE, Assistant Professor, Université de Leiden 109. Christian HENDERSON, Professor, University of Sussex 110. Kevin JON HELLER, Professor, SOAS, University of London 111. Etienne HENRY, Chargé d’enseignement, Université de Neuchâtel 112. Carlos-Miguel HERRERA, Professeur, Université de Cergy-Pontoise 113. Massimo IOVANE, Professore, Federico II University of Naples 114. Mirta Raquel IPPOLITI, Professor Adjunta Derecho Internacional Público, Universidad de la República (Uruguay) 115. Shawan JABARIN, Professeur vacataire, Université de Birzeit 116. Carlos JIMENEZ PIERNAS, Catedrática, Universidad de Alcalá (Madrid) 117. Sarah JOSEPH, Professor, Monash University (Australia) 118. Ioannis KALPOUZOS, Lecturer, City University London 119. Jörg KAMMERHOFER, Professor, University of Freibourg (Germany) 120. Maurice KAMTO, Professeur, Université de Yaoundé II 121. Joseph KAZADI MPIANA, Professeur associé, Université de Lubumbashi (R.D.Congo) 122. Yann KERBRAT, Professeur, Université de Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne) 123. Rahim KHERAD, Professeur émérite, Université d’Angers 124. Jan KLABBERS, Professor, University of Helsinki 125. Pierre KLEIN, Professeur, Université libre de Bruxelles 126. Robert KOLB, Professeur, Université de Genève 127. Martti KOSKENNIEMI, Professor, University of Helsinki 128. Vaios KOUTROULIS, Professeur, Université libre de Bruxelles 129. Noura KRIDIS, Professeure, Université de Carthage 130. Nico KRISCH, Professor, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Geneva) 131. George D. KYRIAKOPOULOS, Lecturer, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens 132. Anne LAGERWALL, Professeure, Université libre de Bruxelles 133. Slim LAGHMANI, Professeur, Université de Tunis 134. Philippe LAGRANGE, Professeur, Université de Poitiers 135. Davorin LAPAS, Professor, University of Zagreb 136. Franck LATTY, Professeur, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense 137. Sabine LAVOREL, Maître de Conférences HDR, Université Grenoble Alpes 138. Yves LE BOUTHILLIER, Professeur, Université d’Ottawa 139. Marco LONGOBARDO, Adjunct Professor, University of Messina 140. Mohamed LIMAM, Maître-assistant, Université de Sousse 141. Sarra MAAOUIA, Maître de conférences, Université de Carthage 142. Ahmed MAHIOU, Directeur de recherche émérite au CNRS, Université d’AixMarseille 143. Rafaëlle MAISON, Professeure, Université de Paris Sud 144. Catherine MAIA, Professeure, Université Lusófona de Porto (Portugal) 145. Sandrine MALJEAN-DUBOIS, Directrice de recherche CNRS, Université d’AixMarseille 146. Auguste MAMPUYA, Professeur, Université de Kinshasa 147. Ana MANERO SALVADOR, Profesora Titular de Derecho Internacional Público y Relaciones Internacionales, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid 148. Pacifique MANIRAKIZA, Associate Professor, University of Ottawa 149. Itamar MANN, Professor, University of Haifa (Israel) 150. Jean-Christophe MARTIN, Professeur, Université Nice Sophia Antipolis 151. Anne-Charlotte MARTINEAU, Senior Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute Luxembourg 152. Wafa MASMOUDI, Professeure, Université de Carthage 153. Jean MATRINGE, Professeur, Université de Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne 154. Makane Moïse MBENGUE, Professeur, Université de Genève 155. Frédéric MEGRET, Professor, McGill University 156. Khaled MEJRI, Maître de conférences, Université de Carthage 157. Luciano Meneguetti, Professor, Centro Universitário Toledo, Araçatuba/SP, Brazil 158. Panos MERKOURIS, Assistant Professor, University of Groningen 159. Mehdi MEZAGUER, Maître de conférences, Université Nice Sophia-Antipolis 160. Anne MILLET-DEVALLE, Maître de conférences HDR, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis 161. Ivon MINGASHANG, Professeur, Université de Kinshasa 162. Mohamed Mahmoud MOHAMED SALAH, Professeur, Université de Nouakchott 163. Djamchid MOMTAZ, Professeur, Université de Téhéran 164. Isabelle MOULIER, Maître de conférences, Université d’Auvergne 165. Pablo MOSCOSO DE LA CUBA, Docente de la Facultad de Derecho, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru 166. Horatia MUIR WATT, Professeure, Sciences Po Paris 167. Valère NDIOR, Maître de conférences, Université de Toulouse 168. Raffaella NIGRO, Associate Professor, University Magna Græcia of Catanzaro 169. Maki NISHIUMI, Professor, Chuo University (Japan) 170. Anne-Thida NORODOM, Professeure, Université de Rouen 171. Gérard NYIUNGEKO, Professeur, Université du Burundi (Bujumbura) 172. Mary Ellen O’CONNELL, Professor, University of Notre Dame (USA) 173. Roger O’KEEFE, Professor, University College London 174. Yasuaki ONUMA, Professor, University of Tokyo 175. Anne ORFORD, Professor, University of Melbourne 176. Paolo PALCHETTI, Professeur, Università di Macerata 177. David PAVOT, Chargé de cours, Université de Sherbrooke (Canada) 178. Mehrdad PAYANDEH, Professor, University of Duesseldorf 179. Jeremy PERELMAN, Professeur, Sciences Po Paris 180. Xavier PHILIPPE, Professeur, Université d’Aix-Marseille 181. Mónica PINTO, Professeure, Universidad de Buenos Aires 182. Ioannis PREZAS, Maître de conférences HDR, Université Paris 1 PanthéonSorbonne 183. Mario PROST, Senior Lecturer, Keele University 184. René PROVOST, Professeur, McGill University 185. Aurélien RACCAH, Enseignant-chercheur à l'Université Catholique de Lille 186. Balakrishnan RAJAGOPAL, Associate Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) 187. Antonio REMIRO BROTONS, Professeur, Universidad autonoma de Madrid 188. Juan Manuel RIVERO GODOY, Profesor ayudante, Universidad de la República, (Uruguay) 189. François ROCH, Professeur, Université du Québec du Montréal 190. Ljubo RUNJIC, Ph.D., Lecturer in International Law, Polytechnic of Sibenik (Croatia) 191. Tom RUYS, Professor, Universiteit Gent 192. Muriel UBEDA-SAILLARD, Professeur, Université de Lille 2 193. Jean SALMON, Professeur émérite, Université libre de Bruxelles 194. François Xavier SALUDEN, chargé de cours, universités du Québec à Montréal, de Montréal, Laval (Canada) 195. Marco SASSOLI, Professeur, Université de Genève 196. Sergey SAYAPIN, Assistant Professor, KIMEP University (Kazakhstan) 197. Damien SCALIA, Professeur, Université libre de Bruxelles 198. Iain SCOBBIE, Professor, University of Manchester 199. Gabrielle SIMM, Chancellor's Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Technology, Sidney 200. Despina SINOU, Chargée de cours, Universités de Paris 2 Panthéon Assas et Paris 13 Nord 201. Pedro SLOBODA, Professor, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro 202. Mounir SNOUSSI, Professeur, Université de Carthage 203. Michelle SOARES GARCIA, Professor, Faculdade Sao Lucas (Brasil) 204. Jean-Marc SOREL, Professeur, Université de Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne 205. Agnieszka SZPAK, Assistant Professor, Nicolas Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland) 206. Paulina STARSKI, LL.B., Senior Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public and International Law, PostDoc Bucerius Law School, Hamburg 207. Immi TALGREN, Research Fellow, Université d’Helsinki 208. Bérangère TAXIL, Professeure, Université d’Angers 209. Jean-François THIBAULT, Doyen, Faculté des arts et des sciences sociales, Université de Moncton, Canada 210. Dire TLADI, Professor, University of Pretoria 211. Soledad TORRECUADRADA GARCIA-LOZANO, Catedrática acreditada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid 212. Mark TOUFAYAN, Professeur, Université du Québec en Outaouais 213. Marcos TOURINHO, Professor, Fundação Getulio Vargas, Brazil 214. Emmanuelle TOURME-JOUANNET, Professeure, SciencesPo Paris 215. Daniel TURP, Professeur, Université de Montréal 216. Antonios TZANOKOPOULOS, Associate Professor, University of Oxford 217. Vassilis P. TZEVELEKOS, Senior Lecturer in Law, University of Liverpool 218. Ntina TZOUVALA, Lecturer, Durham Law School, University of Durham 219. Kim VAN DER BORGHT, Professor, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 220. Carlos VILLAN-DURAN, Co-Director y Profesor en el Máster Universitario en Protección Internacional de los Derechos Humanos de la Universidad de Alcalá (Madrid) ; Presidente de la Asociación Española para el Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos 221. Ugo VILLANI, Professore ordinario, Universita degli studi di Bari Aldo Moro 222. Chiara VITUCCI, Professore, Seconda Università di Napoli 223. Christian WALTER, Professor, University of Munich 224. Karel WELLENS, Professeur émérite, Université de Nimègue 225. Ralph WILDE, Reader in Law, University College London 226. Myra WILLIAMSON, Associate Professor, Kuwait International Law School, Doha City 227. Paula WOJCIKIEWICZ ALMEIDA, Professor, Getulio Vargas Foundation Law School (Rio de Janeiro/Brazil) 228. Jan WOUTERS, Professor, Katholiek Universiteit Leuven 229. Eric WYLER, Professor, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Geneva) 230. Hideo YAMAGATA, Professor, Nagoya University 231. Patrick ZAHND, Professeur, Sciences Po Paris 232. Mamoud ZANI, Professeur, IHE-Tunis ; Directeur, Centre de droit international et européen (CDIE) 233. Svetlana ZASOVA, Maître de conférences en droit des conflits armés associée à Sciences po, chercheure associée à l'IREDIES - École de droit de la Sorbonne


1. Mumbala ABELUNGU Junior, Doctorant, Universiteit Gent 2. Ezéchiel AMANI CIRIMWAMI, Doctorant en droit international et chercheur à la faculté de Droit et de criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 3. Jelena APARAC, ATER, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre 4. Marco BENATAR, Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute Luxembourg for International Law; Researcher, Department of International and European Law, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 5. Issam BENHSSINE, Doctorant, Université Hassan II Ain Chock, Casablanca, Maroc. 6. Eric BILALE, assistant à l'Université Protestante au Congo 7. Gertjan BOULET, Ph.D. Candidate, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 8. Carlos Eduardo de Castro e Silva CARREIRA, Researcher, University of São Paulo 9. Moez CHARFEDDINE, Doctorant, thèse déposée, en attente de soutenance, Université de Carthage 10. Samson DABIRE, Doctorant, Assistant d’enseignements et de recherches-, Université de Genève 11. Habib Ahmed DJIGA, Chargé d'enseignement, Doctorant en Droit International, Université Ouaga II, Burkina Faso 12. Abir EL MEKKI, Doctorante, Université Tunis El Manar 13. Michel ERPELDING, Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute Luxembourg for Procedural Law 14. Rana ESSAWY, Teaching Assistant, Alexandria University (Egypt) 15. Sina ETEZAZIAN, PhD student, Monash University 16. Manuel EYNARD, Doctorant contractuel, Universités de Nice Sophia-Antipolis et de Genève 17. Jérémy HALL, Doctorant, Université Grenoble-Alpes 18. Marie-Laurence HEBERT-DOLBEC, Doctorante, Université libre de Bruxelles 19. Aymeric HECHE, Doctorant, Université de Neuchâtel 20. Alexandra HOFER, Doctorante, Universiteit Gent 21. Aziah HUSSIN, LLM Candidate, University College London 22. Arnaud Duclair KOTSAP MEKONTSO, Master II professionnel en Relations Internationales, option Contentieux International, Institut des Relations Internationales du Cameroun (IRIC) 23. Oumar KOUROUMA, Doctorant, Université Abdel Malek Essaâdi (Maroc) 24. Patryk LABUDA, PhD Candidate, Graduate Institute Geneva 25. Jinan LIMAM, Doctorante, thèse déposée, en attente de soutenance 26. Arnaud LOUWETTE, Assistant, Université libre de Bruxelles 27. Rachel LUCAS, Doctorante contractuelle, Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre, La Défense 28. Jean-Baptiste MAILLART, Doctorant, Université de Genève 29. Andrei MAMOLEA, PhD Candidate, Graduate Institute Geneva 30. Camille MARQUIS BISSONNETTE, Candidate au doctorat en droit, Université Laval 31. Raphaël MAUREL, ATER, Université d'Auvergne 32. Nidhal MEKKI, Doctorant, cotutelle, Université de Carthage - Université Laval 33. Yda Alexis NAGALO, Doctorant en droit international de l'environnement, Université Ouaga II, Burkina Faso 34. Providence NGOY WALUPAKAH, Doctorant en droit, Université de Genève 35. Sophie RONDEAU, Doctorante, Université de Genève 36. Jedsarit SAHUSSARDUNGSI, LLM candidate, University College London 37. Dorra SAMMOUD, Doctorante, Université de Carthage 38. Bérénice K. SCHRAMM, Chercheure postdoctorante FNS, SOAS, Londres, UQÀM, Montréal 39. Elisabeth SCHWEIGER, PhD Researcher, Politics and International Relations, University of Edinburgh 40. Alexandre SENEGACNIK, Doctorant, Sciences Po Paris 41. Bettina STEIBLE, Doctorante, Université Autonome de Barcelone 42. Amine THABET, Doctorant, thèse déposée, en attente de soutenance, Université de Carthage 43. Sâ Benjamin TRAORE, Doctorant Boursier FNS en droit à l'Université de Neuchâtel, Suisse 44. Marusa VEBER, Assistant and PhD Candidate, University of Ljubljana 45. Agatha VERDEBOUT, Doctorante, Université libre de Bruxelles 46. Elodie WEIL, Doctorante, Chargée d'enseignement et de recherche, Université de Cergy-Pontoise 47. Laurent WEYERS, Assistant, Université Libre de Bruxelles. 48. Nadia WU-TIU-YEN, Doctorante, IEHI, Université d'Aix-Marseille ; Chargée d'enseignements, Université de la Réunion 49. Ka Lok YIP, PhD student, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies 50. Christian ZAN, Doctorant, Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan

This note has been published on July 26 in Human Rights Investigation and on July 25 in the Huffingthon Post (Canada) as well as, on July 24, 2016 in Global Research.

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