miércoles, 8 de mayo de 2019

Pacto Nuclear (JCPOA): Irán anuncia que suspenderá parcialmente su aplicación



Pacto Nuclear (JCPOA): Irán anuncia que suspenderá parcialmente su aplicación

El pasado 8 de mayo del 2019, Irán ha anunciado que suspenderá parcialmente algunas de las obligaciones contraídas en el denominado "Pacto Nuclear" (más conocido por sus siglas en inglés JCPOA), suscrito en julio del 2015 con la comunidad internacional, al cumplirse un año desde que Estados Unidos optó por retirarse de este acuerdo y por reimponerle sanciones económicas y comerciales a Irán. En su comunicado (véase texto completo reproducido al final de esta nota), Irán precisa que:

"We entered nuclear talks with goodwill, made an agreement with goodwill, implemented the agreement with goodwill, and provided enough time to the other members after the withdrawal of the United States with goodwill. Now, it is the remaining countries" turn to prove their goodwill and take serious and practical steps to preserve the JCPOA. The window that is now open to diplomacy will not remain open for a long time, and the United States and the remaining members will be fully responsible for the failure of the JCPOA and any possible consequences".

El acuerdo sobre el programa nuclear iraní del 2015 se denomina "Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action" o JCPOA (en persa برنامه جامع اقدام مشترک‎) y pretende poner fin a las sanciones internacionales contra Irán y permitir a este último desarrollar su programa nuclear bajo ciertas medidas de control y un riguroso régimen de verificaciones por parte de la OIEA (Organización Internacional para la Energía Atómica de Naciones Unidas). El acuerdo fue suscrito entre Irán y los cinco Estados (P-5) que son Miembros Permanentes del Consejo de Seguridad, así como con Alemania y la Unión Europea (UE). El JPCOA fue endosado por el Consejo de Seguridad de Naciones Unidas mediante la resolución 2331 del 20 de julio del 2015 (véase texto en español con, en anexo, el texto en español del JPCOA).

Además de referir también al texto como tal en inglés del mismo JCPOA (disponible en este enlace), remitimos al lector a nuestra nota publicada en el 2015 en el sitio jurídico de DerechoalDia, la cual intenta poner en perspectiva este acuerdo alcanzado después de varios años de árduas y complejas negociaciones y reproduce - en su parte final - el comunicado oficial emitido por Costa Rica (véase texto disponible en este enlace).

Resulta oportuno precisar que el calendario muy preciso de verificaciones e inspecciones por parte de la OIEA en Irán se ha mantenido desde el 2015, y que la remisión de sus resultados al Consejo de Seguridad se ha dado sin mayores contratiempos. Pese a informaciones periodísticas que buscan desacreditar a Irán (originadas usualmente en Arabia Saudita, Estados Unidos e Israel), Irán ha cumplido el cronograma al que se comprometió en el 2015, y así lo ha confirmado la misma OIEA periódicamente a la comunidad internacional.

Notemos que en su comunicado oficial del 9 de mayo del 2018, Irán ha propuesto un plazo de 60 días a los demás Estados que son parte al JPCOA para intentar encontrar la forma de solucionar el problema que le significan las sanciones norteamericanas antes de liberarse de algunos de sus compromisos. En efecto, se lee en el mismo comunicado oficial de Irán que:

"The remaining countries will be given sixty days to fulfil their obligations, especially in banking and oil fields. If they fail to meet Iran´s demands in the time given, then the Islamic Republic of Iran will suspend compliance with the uranium enrichment limits and measures to modernise the Arak Heavy Water Reactor. Whenever our demands are met, we will resume the same amount of suspended commitments, but otherwise, the Islamic Republic of Iran will suspend the implementation of other obligations step by step"

En julio del 2018, Irán recurrió al juez internacional con una demanda presentada ante la Corte Internacional de Justicia (CIJ) contra Estados Unidos debido a las sanciones comerciales unilaterales ordenadas en su contra el 8 de mayo del 2018 por la actual administración norteamericana: remitimos a nuestros estimables lectores a nuestra breve nota al respecto. En octubre del 2018, la CIJ ordenó medidas provisionales a Estados Unidos, las cuales fueron saludadas por Irán (véase comunicado oficial circulado por la diplomacia persa): remitimos de igual forma a breve nota nuestra con respecto a esta decisión de la CIJ favorable a Irán (y pocamente divulgada en medios de prensa internacionales).

La decisión de Irán adoptada este 8 de mayo del 2019 dio lugar a una declaración conjunta (véase texto completo) de Alemania, Francia y Reino Unido, con fecha del 9 de mayo, en la que estos tres Estados estiman que:

"We remain fully committed to the preservation and full implementation of the JCPoA, a key achievement of the global nuclear non-proliferation architecture, which is in the security interest of all. We strongly urge Iran to continue to implement its commitments under the JCPoA in full as it has done until now and to refrain from any escalatory steps. We reject any ultimatums and we will assess Iran’s compliance on the basis of Iran’s performance regarding its nuclear-related commitments under the JCPoA and the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons). In this respect, we recall the key role of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) monitoring and verification of the implementation by Iran of its nuclear-related commitments. We also look to Iran to continue to adhere to established JCPoA formats and mechanisms including the JCPoA Joint Commission. At the same time we recall our own firm commitments under the agreement including as regards sanctions-lifting for the benefit of the Iranian people. In this regard, we regret the re-imposition of sanctions by the United States following their withdrawal from the JCPoA".





Comunicado oficial de Irán del 8 de mayo del 2019 (véase enlace oficial).

SNSC in a statement addressing nuclear deal parties: Iran stops some of its measures under JCPOA

The Supreme National Security Council issued a statement addressing the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) member states, stating that the Islamic Republic of Iran has shown considerable restraint in the past one year after the illegal withdrawal of the United States from the JCPOA and violations of United Nations Security Council resolutions".

The statement, which addresses member states to the JCPOA in separate letters by the Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) and the head of the council President Hassan Rouhani, stresses, "In order to protect the security and national interests of the people of Iran, and in implementation of its rights set forth in Paragraph 26 and 36 of the JCPOA, the Islamic Republic of Iran stops some of its measures under the JCPOA from today, 08 May 2019".

The full text of the statement is as follows:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

Statement by the Supreme National Security Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran

In order to protect the security and national interests of the people of Iran, and in implementation of its rights set forth in Paragraph 26 and 36 of the JCPOA, the Supreme National Security Council the Islamic Republic of Iran has issued an order to stop some of Iran"s measures under the JCPOA from today, 08 May 2019. The decision was announced in an important letter by Dr Rouhani, President and Head of the Supreme National Security Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran, to the leaders of the member states, Germany, Britain, China, Russia and France.

Now, one year after the United States" illegal withdrawal from the JCPOA and violation of United Nations Security Council resolutions, that country has re-implemented its unilateral, illegal sanctions contrary to all internationally recognised principles. This blatant bullying behaviour of the US has, unfortunately, not been appropriately addressed by the Security Council or the remaining members.

The Islamic Republic of Iran has shown considerable restraint in the past one year at the request of the other members, giving them considerable time to compensate for the impacts and consequences of US" withdrawal from the JCPOA. During this time, the Joint Commission of JCPOA has been held two times at the level of deputies and two times at the level of foreign ministers, and the remaining countries have explicitly stated in these meetings that the lift of sanctions and Iran"s enjoying of its economic benefits were a critical part of the JCPOA. They promised to design "practical solutions" to normalise and promote economic cooperation with Iran.

Unfortunately, the goodwill and wise self-restraint of the Iranian people have remained unanswered, and no operational mechanisms have been set up to compensate for US sanctions except for the issuance of political statements. Therefore, in order to secure its rights and restore balance to the demands of the parties to the agreement, the Islamic Republic of Iran has no option other than "reducing commitments".

In this regard, it is being stated that the Islamic Republic of Iran does not commit itself to respecting the limits on the keeping of enriched uranium and heavy water reserves at the current stage. The remaining countries will be given sixty days to fulfil their obligations, especially in banking and oil fields. If they fail to meet Iran"s demands in the time given, then the Islamic Republic of Iran will suspend compliance with the uranium enrichment limits and measures to modernise the Arak Heavy Water Reactor. Whenever our demands are met, we will resume the same amount of suspended commitments, but otherwise, the Islamic Republic of Iran will suspend the implementation of other obligations step by step.

The Islamic Republic of Iran is ready to continue its consultations with the remaining members of the JCPOA at all levels, but will show a strong and immediate response to any irresponsible action, including referral to the UN Security Council or implementation of further sanctions. In his letter to the leaders of the member states, the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran has clearly pointed out the types of reactions of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Currently, the Islamic Republic of Iran has said it final word to the member states and the international community. We entered nuclear talks with goodwill, made an agreement with goodwill, implemented the agreement with goodwill, and provided enough time to the other members after the withdrawal of the United States with goodwill. Now, it is the remaining countries" turn to prove their goodwill and take serious and practical steps to preserve the JCPOA.

The window that is now open to diplomacy will not remain open for a long time, and the United States and the remaining members will be fully responsible for the failure of the JCPOA and any possible consequences.

Supreme National Security Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran
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