miércoles, 3 de febrero de 2021

Irán / Estados Unidos: CIJ se declara competente para examinar sanciones de EEUU


Irán / Estados Unidos: CIJ se declara competente para examinar sanciones de EEUU


El pasado 3 de febrero, la Corte Internacional de Justicia (CIJ) adop  una sentencia  en la que se declara plenamente competente para conocer la demanda interpuesta en julio del 2018 por Irán contra Estados Unidos. Esta demanda iraní se presentó ante el juez internacional en La Haya luego de optar Estados Unidos, en el mes de mayo del 2018, por reanudar unilateralmente un régimen de sanciones económicas y comerciales contra Irán por sus supuestos incumplimientos en materia nuclear. 

Como es bien sabido, estas sanciones norteamericanas fueron decididas y justificadas con base en informaciones de inteligencia trasmitidas a Estados Unidos por los servicios secretos de Israel, y desmentidas por la agencia especializada de Naciones Unidas encargada de vigilar con inspecciones in situ el cumplimiento de lo pactado en julio del 2015 entre la comunidad internacional e Irán, tal y como tuvimos la oportunidad de analizarlo (véase nuestra breve nota titulada "Irán demanda a Estados Unidos ante la Corte Internacional de Justicia (CIJ) por sanciones comerciales del 8 de mayo" del 18/07/2018 disponible en este enlace).

En un primer momento, Estados Unidos presen en La Haya  una batería de argumentos tendientes a explicar que la CIJ no tenia ninguna competencia para examinar la demanda iraní, abriendo una etapa previa desde el punto de vista procesal, denominada "excepciones preliminares". 

Irán utilizó como base de competencia de la CIJ un antiguo tratado bilateral de amistad y comercio con Estados Unidos suscrito en 1955 (véase texto completo), cuya validez y alcance fueron cuestionados por los asesores legales norteamericanos: siendo un tratado plenamente vigente al momento de depositarse la demanda persa en La Haya en julio del 2018, el razonamiento norteamericano consistió en intentar debilitar y limitar esta base de competencia (véase verbatim de la segunda ronda de alegatos norteamericanos, presentados a la CIJ con ocasión de las audiencias orales celebrada el 18/09/2020), un intento (vano) que los asesores de Irán pudieron desvirtuar sin mayores contemplaciones (véase verbatim de la segunda ronda de alegatos persas, con ocasión de las audiencias orales celebradas el 21/09/2020).

Adicionalmente, a modo de respuesta a la demanda iraní planteada en La Haya, Estados Unidos optó  por adoptar nuevas sanciones en agosto del 2018, que tuvimos la oportunidad de analizar (véase nuestra nota publicada en el sitio especializado de CIARGlobal, titulada "Estados Unidos / Irán: puesta en perspectiva de las nuevas sanciones unilaterales (infundadas) anunciadas este 6 de agosto", edición del 20/08/2018 y disponible en este enlace). 

La sentencia de la CIJ de este 3 de febrero del 2021 (disponible en este enlace en francés y en ingles)  es contundente al haberse rechazado las cinco excepciones preliminares norteamericanas de manera unánime (véase párrafo 114), con la notable excepción del juez ad hoc designado por Estados Unidos, cuyo razonamiento no parece haber impresionado a ninguno de sus colegas en la CIJ (véase texto completo de su extensa opinión disidente). 

En las próximas semanas, la CIJ procederá a convocar nuevamente a ambos Estados, para precisar esta vez el cronograma a seguir con relación  a la segunda etapa sobre el fondo: esta última durará varios años antes de la lectura del fallo (cuatro a cinco como mínimo).

Nótese que cuando Nicaragua planteó  su demanda contra Estados Unidos en 1984 por actividades militares y paramilitares en su territorio apoyadas y adiestradas por Estados Unidos, recurrió también a un viejo tratado de amistad, comercio y navegación  suscrito en 1956 con Estados Unidos: en aquella ocasión, Estados Unidos también optó en un primer momento  por cuestionar ante la CIJ la base de competencia usada por Nicaragua, sin mayores éxitos, culminando esta demanda de Nicaragua con un histórico fallo de la CIJ en junio de 1986 (véase texto completo). 


Esta nota fue elaborada por Nicolas Boeglin, Profesor de Derecho Internacional Publico, Facultad de Derecho, Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR)



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