miércoles, 31 de diciembre de 2014

EL RESULTADO DE VOTO DEL CONSEJO DE SEGURIDAD SOBRE PALESTINA: BALANCE Y PERSPECTIVAS

El representante de Palestina durante la sesión del Consejo de Seguridad. Foto extraída de artículo de prensa

Este 30 de diciembre, el Consejo de Seguridad finalmente procedió a votar el proyecto de resolución sobre Palestina, presentado a mediados de diciembre por Jordania y modificado en varias ocasiones (ver al final de esta nota texto definitivo puesto en discusión). La sesión del Consejo duró 1 hora y 15 minutos (ver audio/video disponible en este enlace). El texto, que exigía entre varios puntos la retirada de Israel de los territorios palestinos antes del final del 2017 reunió ocho votos a favor (Argentina, Chad, Chile, China, Francia, Jordania, Luxemburgo y Rusia), 2 en contra (Australia y Estados Unidos) y 5 abstenciones (Corea del Sur, Lituania, Nigeria, Reino Unido y Ruanda). Este voto refleja nuevamente el aislamiento de Estados Unidos en el seno del Consejo de Seguridad, situación que también se evidenció en el seno del Consejo de Derechos Humanos en el mes de julio del 2014 (ver nota). Para los observadores, llama la atención el elevado número de abstenciones reunido en esta precisa votación del Consejo de Seguridad. En el caso de Luxemburgo, quién votó a favor del texto, su Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores participó personalmente en la votación (ver texto de explicación del voto)

Como bien se sabe, para que una decisión sea considerada como adoptada por el Consejo de Seguridad, se requiere del voto afirmativo de nueve de sus integrantes, incluyendo el de los cinco Miembros Permanentes (China, Estados Unidos, Francia, Reino Unido y Rusia). En esta ocasión Estados Unidos uso su derecho a veto, que ostenta conjuntamente con cada uno de los cinco Miembros Permanentes del Consejo de Seguridad (ver nota al respecto): Al no lograrse reunir nueve votos afirmativos, sino tan solo ocho, el veto no surtió sus efectos. En una nota de prensa de The Guardian, se indica que el noveno voto que cambió súbitamente de parecer media hora antes del voto fue el de Nigeria, cuyo Presidente fue objeto de llamadas personales del Primer Ministro de Israel y del Secretario de Estado norteamericano. Entre otras cosas, se lee que:

"One Palestinian source involved in the negotiations told the Guardian: “Even half an hour before the vote, Nigeria indicated it was committed to voting for the resolution. We knew that Rwanda, South Korea and Australia would not back it, but we believed Nigeria was on board.” The apparent change by Nigeria, which is a rotating member of the council, came after both the Israeli prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, and the US secretary of state, John Kerry, phoned the country’s president, Goodluck Jonathan, to ask him not to support the resolution. A State Department spokesman said on Tuesday that Kerry had called a number of senior foreign officials, including Jonathan, before the vote. Arriving at primary elections for leadership of his Likud party on Wednesday, Netanyahu confirmed he had spoken to both Paul Kagame of Rwanda and Jonathan before the UN vote. “I spoke with both of them,” he told reporters. “They promised me personally that they would not support this decision and they stood by their words. That is what tipped the scales.” " (Ver texto de la nota completa).

Es probable que Palestina vuelva a ser tema de debate en el Consejo de Seguridad en los próximos días: a partir del primero de enero del 2015, ingresan al Consejo de Seguridad Angola, España, Malasia, Nueva Zelanda y Venezuela y se retiran del máximo órgano de Naciones Unidas los siguientes miembros: Argentina, Australia, Corea del Sur, Luxemburgo, y Ruanda. Es muy posible que un texto similar al votado este 30 de diciembre o sobre otros asuntos relacionados con Palestina arroje un resultado bastante distinto si es votado a partir del 1ero de enero.

Decepcionadas por el resultado alcanzado, las autoridades de Palestina hicieron público este mismo 31 de diciembre una serie de nuevas acciones diplomáticas, en particular la suscripción de Palestina como Estado a unos 20 tratados internacionales, así como una declaración formal de reconocimiento de la jurisdicción de la Corte Penal Internacional (CPI) (ver nota de prensa). La lista detallada de los acuerdos internacionales suscritos por Palestina en este 31 de diciembre del 2014 es la siguiente: (siglas en ingles)

Convention on the political rights of women - Convention on the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards - Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal - Convention on Biological Diversity and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity - Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions (1949),relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts(Protocol II) - Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem (Protocol III) - Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses - Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime - Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel - Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel - United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea - Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity - Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court - Convention on Cluster Munitions - The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons - The Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons - Declaration in accordance with the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court



TEXTO DE LA PROPUESTA DE RESOLUCIÓN (VERSIÓN DEFINITIVA AL 29/12/2014) PRESENTADA POR JORDANIA AL CONSEJO DE SEGURIDAD DE NACIONES UNIDAS

Jordan: draft resolution

Reaffirming its previous resolutions, in particular resolutions 242 (1967); 338 (1973), 1397 (2002), 1515 (2003), 1544 (2004), 1850 (2008), 1860 (2009) and the Madrid Principles,

Reiterating its vision of a region where two democratic states, Israel and Palestine, live side by side in peace within secure and recognized borders,

Reaffirming the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination and to independence in their State of Palestine, with East Jerusalem as its capital,

Recalling General Assembly resolution 181 (II) of 29 November 1947,

Reaffirming the principle of the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by force and recalling its resolutions 446 (1979), 452 (1979) and 465 (1980), determining, inter alia, that the policies and practices of Israel in establishing settlements in the territories occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem, have no legal validity and constitute a serious obstruction to achieving a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East,

Recalling also its relevant resolutions regarding the status of Jerusalem, including resolution 478 (1980) of 20 August 1980, and bearing in mind that the annexation of East Jerusalem is not recognized by the international community,

Affirming the imperative of resolving the problem of the Palestine refugees on the basis of international law and relevant resolutions, including resolution 194 (III), as stipulated in the Arab Peace Initiative,

Recalling the advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice of 9 July 2004 on the legal consequences of the construction of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory,

Underlining that the Gaza Strip constitutes an integral part of the Palestinian territory occupied in 1967, and calling for a sustainable solution to the situation in the Gaza Strip, including the sustained and regular opening of its border crossings for normal flow of persons and goods, in accordance with international humanitarian law,

Welcoming the important progress in Palestinian state-building efforts recognised by the World Bank and the IMF in 2012, and reiterating its call to all States and international organizations to contribute to the Palestinian institution building programme in preparation for independence,

Reaffirming that a just, lasting and peaceful settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict can only be achieved by peaceful means, based on an enduring commitment to mutual recognition, freedom from violence, incitement and terror, and the two-State solution, building on previous agreements and obligations and stressing that the only viable solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an agreement that ends the occupation that began in 1967, resolves all permanent status issues as previously defined by the parties, and fulfils the legitimate aspirations of both parties,

Condemning all violence and hostilities directed against civilians and all acts of terrorism, and reminding all States of their obligations under resolution 1373 (2001),

Recalling the obligation to ensure the safety and well-being of civilians and ensure their protection in situations of armed conflict,

Reaffirming the right of all States in the region to live in peace within secure and internationally recognized borders,

Noting with appreciation the efforts of the United States in 2013/14 to facilitate and advance negotiations between the parties aimed at achieving a final peace settlement,

Aware of its responsibilities to help secure a long-term solution to the conflict,

1. Affirms the urgent need to attain, no later than 12 months after the adoption of this resolution, a just, lasting and comprehensive peaceful solution that brings an end to the Israeli occupation since 1967 and fulfils the vision of two independent, democratic and prosperous states, Israel and a sovereign, contiguous and viable State of Palestine, living side by side in peace and security within mutually and internationally recognized borders;

2. Decides that the negotiated solution will be based on the following parameters:

– borders based on 4 June 1967 lines with mutually agreed, limited, equivalent land swaps;

– security arrangements, including through a third-party presence, that guarantee and respect the sovereignty of a State of Palestine, including through a full and phased withdrawal of the Israeli occupying forces, which will end the occupation that began in 1967 over an agreed transition period in a reasonable timeframe, not to exceed the end of 2017, and that ensure the security of both Israel and Palestine through effective border security and by preventing the resurgence of terrorism and effectively addressing security threats, including emerging and vital threats in the region;

– a just and agreed solution to the Palestine refugee question on the basis of Arab Peace Initiative, international law and relevant United Nations resolutions, including resolution 194 (III);

– a just resolution of the status of Jerusalem as the capital of the two States which fulfils the legitimate aspirations of both parties and protects freedom of worship;

– the just settlement of all other outstanding issues, including water and prisoners;

3. Recognizes that the final status agreement shall put an end to the occupation and an end to all claims and lead to immediate mutual recognition;

4. Affirms that the definition of a plan and schedule for implementing the security arrangements shall be placed at the centre of the negotiations within the framework established by this resolution;

5. Looks forward to welcoming Palestine as a full Member State of the United Nations within the timeframe defined in the present resolution;

6. Urges both parties to engage seriously in the work of building trust and to act together in the pursuit of peace by negotiating in good faith and refraining from all acts of incitement and provocative acts or statements, and also calls upon all States and international organizations to support the parties in confidence-building measures and to contribute to an atmosphere conducive to negotiations;

7. Calls upon all parties to abide by their obligations under international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949;

8. Encourages concurrent efforts to achieve a comprehensive peace in the region, which would unlock the full potential of neighbourly relations in the Middle East and reaffirms in this regard the importance of the full implementation of the Arab Peace Initiative;

9. Calls for a renewed negotiation framework that ensures the close involvement, alongside the parties, of major stakeholders to help the parties reach an agreement within the established timeframe and implement all aspects of the final status, including through the provision of political support as well as tangible support for post-conflict and peace-building arrangements, and welcomes the proposition to hold an international conference that would launch the negotiations;

10. Calls upon both parties to abstain from any unilateral and illegal actions, as well as all provocations and incitement, that could escalate tensions and undermine the viability and attainability of a two-State solution on the basis of the parameters defined in this resolution;

10bis. Reiterates its demand in this regard for the complete cessation of all Israeli settlement activities in the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem;

11. Calls for immediate efforts to redress the unsustainable situation in the Gaza Strip, including through the provision of expanded humanitarian assistance to the Palestinian civilian population via the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East and other United Nations agencies and through serious efforts to address the underlying issues of the crisis, including consolidation of the ceasefire between the parties;

12. Requests the Secretary-General to report on the implementation of this resolution every three months;

13. Decides to remain seized of the matter.






Una version ampliada de esta nota fue publicada en Informa-tico el 5/1/2015, en Alainet el 4/1/2015, en Periodistas-es el 3/1/2015, en Lacelosía el 2/1/2015 y en Elpais.cr el 1/1/2015. Así como en el sitio jurídico especializado Derechoaldia (San José, Costa Rica) el 4/1/2015, el sitio DIpúblico (La Plata, Argentina) el 5/01/2015 y en el sitio especializado RIDH (Ginebra, Suiza) el 6/1/2015.

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