sitio de información.
La Comisión de la Unión Europea (UE) adoptó hoy una regulación de alcance general para sus 28 Estados Miembros con el fin de proceder al etiquetado obligatorio en el seno de la Unión Europea (UE) de todos los productos procedentes de los asentamientos israelíes ubicados en territorios palestinos ocupados (ver texto integral, reproducido al final de esta nota)
Se trata de una medida tomada después de varios años de discusión en el seno de diversas instancias europeas. En setiembre del 2015, el Parlamento Europeo había "tomado nota" de una iniciativa en este sentido suscrita por 16 Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de Estados Miembros de la UE (ver nota). En su carta conjunta de abril del 2015 a la jefa de la diplomacia de la UE, los 16 Ministros indicaban (ver texto de la carta) que:
"Following the public
commitment made by the Council in May and December 2012 and more recently in November
2014, we remain of the view that this is an important step in the full implementation of EU
longstanding policy, in relation to the preservation of the two-state solution. The continued
expansion of Israeli illegal settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, and other territories
occupied by Israel since 1967, threatens the prospect of a just and final peace agreement.
Moreover, the correct and coherent implementation of EU consumer protection and EU labeling
legislation is necessary to ensure that consumers are not being misled by false information.
European consumers must indeed have confidence in knowing the origin of goods they are
purchasing. Green Line Israel and Palestinian producers will benefit from this."
Se lee en medios de prensa que han dado a conocer la medida adoptada por la Comisión de la UE que: "la Unión Europea (UE) considera que los territorios ocupados no forman parte del territorio soberano de Israel y que por ende todo lo que provenga de (los asentamientos) no puede ser etiquetado como productos hechos en Israel, es tan simple como eso y no hay nada más detrás" (ver nota de La Vanguardia).
La airada reacción israelí ha consistido en protestar de manera vehemente, en convocar al Representante de la UE en Tel Aviv, en anunciar la suspensión de varias reuniones previstas con jerarcas de la UE. En medio de sus habituales gesticulaciones, sus máximas autoridades afirmaron que "Estas medidas son discriminatorias. Es intolerable que Israel sea el único país al que se le aplican esta política cuando hay más de 200 conflictos territoriales en el mundo" (ver nota de prensa de El Mundo). Por su parte, las autoridades de Palestina celebraron la decisión de la UE e instaron a otras regiones del mundo a extender este mismo tipo de regulación comercial con relación a los productos israelíes, en particular en los Estados de América Latina (ver nota de prensa).
Texto de la Decisión C(2015) del 11/11/2015 - versión en inglés:
C(2015) 7834 final
on indication of origin of goods from the territories occupied by Israel since June 1967
Interpretative Notice on indication of origin of goods from the territories occupied by Israel since
(1) The European Union, in line with international law, does not recognise Israel’s sovereignty over
the territories occupied by Israel since June 1967, namely the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip and the
West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and does not consider them to be part of Israel’s territory
irrespective of their legal status under domestic Israeli law
. The Union has made it clear that it will
not recognise any changes to pre-1967 borders, other than those agreed by the parties to the Middle
East Peace Process (MEPP)
(2) The application of existing Union legislation on indication of origin of products to products
originating in Israeli-occupied territories has been the subject of notices or guidance adopted by the
relevant authorities of several Member States. There is indeed a demand for clarity from consumers,
economic operators and national authorities about existing Union legislation on origin information of
products from Israeli-occupied territories
. The aim is also to ensure the respect of Union positions
and commitments in conformity with international law on the non-recognition by the Union of
Israel’s sovereignty over the territories occupied by Israel since June 1967. This notice also aims at
maintaining open and smooth trade, is not hindering trade flows and should not be construed to do
(3) This Notice does not create any new legislative rules. While this Notice reflects the Commission's
understanding of the relevant Union legislation, enforcement of the relevant rules remains the
primary responsibility of Member States. According to the case-law, while the choice of penalties
remains within their discretion, Member States must ensure that penalties for infringements of
provisions of Union law are effective, proportionate and dissuasive.
The Commission ensures, as
guardian of the Treaties, compliance with these obligations of Member States if need be by way of
infringement proceedings. This Notice is without prejudice to other requirements established by
Union legislation, and to the interpretation which the Court of Justice may provide.
(4) Several pieces of Union legislation currently provide for mandatory indication of origin of the
product in question. The requirement often relates to the designation of the "country of origin"
, but sometimes other expressions, such as the "place of provenance", for foods, are also used
. Subject to
any specific provision to the contrary in the relevant provisions of Union legislation, in principle
determination of the country of origin of foods will be based on the Union's non-preferential rules of
origin laid-down in customs legislation
(5) When the indication of origin of the product in question is explicitly required by the relevant
provisions of Union law, it must be correct and not misleading for the consumer.
(6) When the indication of origin is not mandatory, if the origin is provided on a voluntary basis, the
information must be correct and not misleading for the consumer
(7) Since the Golan Heights and the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) are not part of the Israeli
territory according to international law, the indication ‘product from Israel’ is considered to be incorrect and misleading in the sense of the referenced legislation.
(8) To the extent that the indication of the origin is mandatory, another expression will have to be
used, which takes into account how these territories are often known.
(9) For products from Palestine that do not originate from settlements, an indication which does
not mislead about the geographical origin, while corresponding to international practice, could be
'product from the West Bank (Palestinian product)'
, ‘product from Gaza’ or 'product from
(10) For products from the West Bank or the Golan Heights that originate from settlements, an
indication limited to 'product from the Golan Heights' or 'product from the West Bank' would not be
acceptable. Even if they would designate the wider area or territory from which the product
originates, the omission of the additional geographical information that the product comes from
Israeli settlements would mislead the consumer as to the true origin of the product. In such cases the
expression 'Israeli settlement' or equivalent needs to be added, in brackets, for example. Therefore,
expressions such as 'product from the Golan Heights (Israeli settlement)' or 'product from the West
Bank (Israeli settlement)' could be used.
(11) In any event, in accordance with Union consumer protection legislation, indication of origin
becomes mandatory when, as regards food, the omission of that information would mislead the
consumer as to the true origin of the product, and, as regards all other goods, when information is
omitted that is material, according to the context, to take an informed transactional decision and
thereby causes or is likely to cause the average consumer to take a transactional decision that he
would not have taken otherwise. In such cases the examples in previous paragraph would be
(12) Information on origin is often available to economic operators in various forms. In many cases
information on the origin of products can be found on customs documentation. If they benefit from
preferential treatment on importation, the products will be accompanied by proof of preferential
origin issued by Israel, or by the Palestinian authorities. Other documents such as invoices,
delivery notes and transport documents may provide an indication of the origin products. If the
information is not readily available from accompanying documents, economic operators may request
information on origin, directly from their suppliers or importers.